Validating the cross racial identity scale Adults only sex chat
Identity: An International Journal of Research and Theory, 10, 164-180 Fhagen-Smith, P.
(Re) examining racial identity differences across gender, community type, and socioeconomic status among African American college students. Social class, racial/ethnic identity, and the psychology of “choice”.
College diversity experiences and cognitive development: A meta-analysis.
Journal of College Student Development, 54, 322-328.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRO THEORYTYPES OF WROs BIBLIOGRAPHYWhite racial outlook (WRO) theories are considered some of the most influential psychological variables when studying whites’ views of self and of persons of color.
They offer a framework from which to understand views of race and ethnicity in a racialized society.
Several researchers have found that interracial interactions positively affect cognitive outcomes and college satisfaction for all students. Rather than measure racism as a unidimensional, bipolar construct (i.e., racist or not racist), WROs can delineate nuances of racial attitudes.These WRO theories offer a means to determine whether whites understand the sociopolitical realities of race, and they help explain why a person may behave in a racist fashion in one setting but not in another.Further refinements in an understanding of racial attitudes can help modify these attitudes.In essence, instead of stating that a white individual is racist or not, white racial outlook theories suggest that attitudes that whites have cannot be so simply categorized, although these attitudes may have components of racism embedded within them.